Transportes y Desvalor- La pérdida de las capacidades humanas inducidas por los transportes

Miguel Valencia Mulkay - Descrecimiento México

Cada año, el territorio donde vivo (la Cuenca del Valle de México), se altera con mayor rapidez. Veo crecer no sólo mi ciudad sino todas las ciudades de México, y aún las de los países poderosos que tienen población en decrecimiento. Desde que se introdujo la máquina de vapor hace más de doscientos años, todo camina en el mundo, hasta las mismas rocas, los montes, los ríos, las casas, los edificios, los pueblos, las ciudades, y los bosques, como aquel famoso bosque en el Macbeth de Shakespeare:No alces la cabeza, rebelión, hasta que camine el Bosque de Birnam. Todo se mueve a mí alrededor todos los días, casi imperceptiblemente, a velocidades diferentes. El paso diario de los transportes cambia continuamente el paisaje: aumentan las personas que se transportan, las unidades de transporte que transitan por mi comunidad. Aumenta la superficie pavimentada o urbanizada; aumentan el número y la altura de los edificios que me rodean; aumenta el volumen de carga; aumenta la velocidad puntual, ocasional, de los transportes. El transporte mueve, disloca, cambia todo lo que está en su cercanía y altera el paisaje rural y urbano. Cambian los usos del suelo. El transporte disloca o deporta a las personas, expele las cosas y también disloca el tiempo de nuestra vida.

El culto a la velocidad es el símbolo que organiza a los transportes y crea el Espectáculo de la Velocidad. La velocidad que envejece al mundo se ha vuelto un nuevo absoluto. Hoy nacemos sólo para movernos. Sin embargo, el Espectáculo de la Velocidad, la apariencia de velocidad, no es realmente la velocidad que nos gustaría tener. En el libro Energía y Equidad, (1973), Ivan Illich nos descubre, por medio de la noción de la "velocidad generalizada", lo que ocultan la industria, los gobiernos y las universidades, de la siguiente manera "el varón americano típico consagra mas de 1,500 horas por año a su automóvil: sentado en él, en marcha o parado, trabajando para pagarlo, para pagar la gasolina, los neumáticos, los peajes, los seguros, las infracciones y los impuestos para la construcción de carreteras y los estacionamientos. Le consagra cuatro horas al día en las que se sirve de él o trabaja para él. Sin contar con el tiempo que pasa en el hospital, en el tribunal o en el taller o viendo publicidad automovilística ante el televisor… Estas 1,500 horas anuales le sirven para recorrer 10,000 kilómetros, es decir, 6 kilómetros por hora. Exactamente la misma velocidad que alcanzan los hombres en los países que no tienen industria de transporte. Con la salvedad de que el americano medio destina a la circulación la cuarta parte del tiempo social disponible, mientras que en las sociedades no motorizadas se destina a este fin sólo entre 3 y el 8 por 100." Desde entonces sabemos que la velocidad no es sino la cara oculta de la riqueza; de la riqueza que la gran mayoría a la mayoría de la población transfiere a una minoría muy poderosa, el 1%.

Con las vías de comunicación, se desnaturaliza no sólo el tiempo también el territorio. La civilización del automóvil aleja los lugares donde se realizan las grandes actividades humanas( la vivienda, el trabajo, las amenidades); arruina los comercios y los placeres de proximidad mientras nos impone la dictadura de un modelo urbanizador adaptado a sus necesidades: el hombre ha quedado entonces al servicio de la maquina, del automóvil. Mientras más transportes circulan en el territorio menos valen socialmente las personas, menos belleza y amenidad tiene el paisaje que nos rodea. Muere en el mundo la autonomía, aparece el desvalorde la persona, la familia y la comunidad territorial y desde luego de la Madre Tierra. La creciente cantidad de transportes que circulan por nuestras casas, banquetas, calles, jardines, camellones, parques, bosques y campos de cultivo; el aumento en la circulación de autos y camiones en las vías rápidas y las carreteras, multiplican las muertes y las discapacidades, especialmente paro los grupos vulnerables, como niños, jóvenes, mujeres y ancianos. Esta guerra de baja intensidad provoca más muertos y discapacitados que las guerras de gran intensidad como la de Iraq o las guerras civiles, como la de Libia o Siria.

El mundo moderno deslocaliza tanto a los hombres como a los objetos y los hace intercambiables; se deporta a los vecinos que residen en el centro de las ciudades hacia las afueras de las mismas; se desplaza a los campesinos fuera de sus tierras; se hace migrar a todas las poblaciones en la penuria económica hacia los países poderosos. Todos podemos inesperadamente ser desplazados de nuestra casa, calle, colonia, ciudad o país, por algún giro repentino, violento, típico de la mundialización: una vía rápida, una ampliación de carretera o una nueva línea del Metro, una célula de un cartel del narco, una crisis social, económica o política… La construcción de calles anchas, de bulevares y calzadas, de viaductos, periféricos, pasos a desnivel, distribuidores viales, segundos pisos, arcos viales, cortan, laminan, trituran el tejido urbano, hacen fuerte al crimen organizado, y pone todo lo que necesito cada día más lejos: puedo ir más rápido a Tlahuac con la línea 12 de Metro, pero los lugares a los que necesito ir que estaban cerca de mi colonia ahora empiezan a moverse hacia otras demarcaciones; cada año me cuesta más tiempo ir a visitar a los amigos en su casa o encontrar lo que busco cerca de casa. Cierto, el OXXO, el Walmart, y Bancomer y Banamex me quedan cada día más cerca, pero, desapareció mi antigua miscelánea, mi abarrote, mi panadería, mi tintorería, mi zapatero, mi carpintero, mis pequeños comerciantes; se fueron los antiguos vecinos y llegan unos nuevos que proyectan sus nuevos domicilios en otras colonias, ciudades o países. Quienes viven cerca de los megaproyectos, quedan rodeados,"encapsulados" por grandes obstáculos: rodeos enormes, vallas, puentes y túneles peatonales; deben franquear grandes distancias para ir del otro lado de estas infraestructuras; los viajes que eran cortos se hacen largos; es más rápido ir más lejos que más cerca; frecuentemente es más rápido tomar una tangente que ir derecho al punto que quieren. La esfera tecnológica mata a la esfera geográfica (social, política, cultural). El hombre consumista es un producto hidropónico: se cultiva fuera del suelo, vive en su auto o en una vivienda u oficina, a varios pisos sobre el suelo. Es mal visto ser con toda evidencia de un lugar. Las lenguas regionales y aun los acentos locales son poco aceptados o deslegitimados. La desterritorialización genera incomprensión y violencia. En la aldea global todo es igual, como los aeropuertos o las franquicias Mac Donalds; en ella se multiplican los llamados No lugares o lugares iguales en todo el mundo, o los lugares chatarra, o la "tierra de nadie", como las vías del ferrocarril, los sumideros, las zonas industriales, los bajo puentes.


En México, sólo un 18% de sus ciudadanos utilizan regularmente el automóvil, no obstante, las ciudades están hechas para ellos(los trailers empiezan a desplazarlos). La opinión del automovilista pesa algo así como la opinión de diez ciudadanos sin automóvil, ya que consigue imponer las vías rápidas que necesita, eliminar los impuestos a las gasolinas, a los autos, a los estacionamientos: es un ciudadano "pesado":hace surco por donde se desplaza. En cambio el peatón vive un mundo "del otro lado del parabrisas", un mundo de alto riesgo, muy hostil que habitualmente debe, además, convertirse en "usuario del transporte público". El peatón y el usuario del transporte sienten toda la miseria, el sentimiento de abandono, impotencia, exclusión, pobreza "moralmente sentida", desesperación, segregación que acompaña a su condición. El sistema de transportes impone las peores humillaciones a la mayor parte de los ciudadanos. Según el libro Dans le miroir du passe, Ivan Illich, lanza en 1968, una severa crítica al economicismo dominante, que impone el transporte obligatorio para sobrevivir en la modernidad, con el concepto de desvalorque designa la pérdida… que no se podría estimar en términos económicos. Que el economista no tiene medio alguno para estimar lo que sucede a una persona que pierde el uso efectivo de sus pies porque el automóvil ejerce un monopolio radical sobre la locomoción. De lo que se priva a esta persona no pertenece al dominio de la escasez. En el presente, para ir de aquí a allá debe comprar kilómetros-pasajero. El medio geográfico paraliza sus pies. El espacio ha sido convertido en una infraestructura destinada a los vehículos. ¿Esto quiere decir que los pies son obsoletos? Desde luego que no. Los pies no son "medios rudimentarios de transporte personal" como nos lo quieren hacer creer algunos responsables de las redes carreteras. Pero, sucede que, atascada en lo económico (por no decir anestesiados) la gente se ha vuelto ciega e indiferente a la pérdida inducida por el desvalor.

Las cuatro o cinco horas diarias que dedican al transporte la gran mayoría de las personas en el mundo, en buenos y malos trenes rápidos, suburbanos o de cercanías; en Metros o Metrobuses; en autobuses o camiones; en autos de lujo o económicos, equivalen aproximadamente a 1,400 horas al año en las que gastan en promedio la tercera parte de sus ingresos; sin embargo, en estas horas, normalmente no descansan, sufren mucha tensión o stress; no se educan, se embrutecen; no gozan, se aburren mucho; no ganan dinero, lo pierden miserablemente; viven los peores momentos de sus vidas y abandonan a su familia y a sus amigos. Podemos en este momento establecer las siguientes reglas: La Primera Regla: La Buena Vida o el Buen Vivir es inversamente proporcional al uso diario de transporte: mientras menos transporte diario más bienestar social, mas prosperidad. La Segunda Regla: El mejor transporte es el que no se usa o no se fabrica: el usó mínimo del transporte implica el beneficio máximo. Esto no significa que los transportes deban desaparecer totalmente; solo deben ser utilizados lo menos posible; se debe fijar un máximo de velocidad de 25- 30 kmh, que es la velocidad óptima de los transportes urbanos. Las tres o cuatro horas diarias en las que utilizamos indebida pero obligatoriamente el transporte, son consecuencia de los grandes beneficios que estas horas de transporte le reportan a una minoría de la población, el 1% del que habla Occupy Wall Street y, también, de la colonización mental de la gran mayoría de la población. En efecto, la escuela, los medios y la publicidad y el consumo de la cotidianidad tecnológica, hacen posible que duren todavía los valores que conservan en el mundo las tres o cuatro horas que diariamente pierde miserablemente la gran mayoría de la población humana.

Presentación en la plenaria del Encuentro Ivan Illich del 14 de diciembre de 2012, en Cuernavaca

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    123.hp.com/setup
    norton.com/setup
    http://ij.start.canon
    https://ij.start.canon

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  56. Welcome to the HP site. Download the software SW from hp setup and set up your printer. Then, Get started to installed hp setup and get able to connect the printer to the network through a USB cable or use a wireless HP printer.
    microsoft365.com/setup

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  57. McAfee Activate Product Key is available in a physical retail card and digital license copy (eCard) as well. The retail card or eCard of McAfee product carries 25 alphanumeric characters code, and the card suggests you visit. Macfee.com/activate | Mcafee.com/activate | mcafe.com/activate | Mcafee.com/activate

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  58. microsoft365.com/setup Install Microsoft 365 from microsoft365.con/setup to get all Microsoft 365 Apps on Windows, Mac, or even smartphones. You'll require unique 25-characters keycode and a Microsoft account to start Microsoft download. microsoft365.com/setup

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  59. Webroot product keycode is 20 alphanumeric characters code and can be registered through webroot.com/safe site . Microsoft365.com/setup offers access to the Microsoft 365 software product. Microsoft365.com/setup

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  60. microsoft365 setup just provides an installation guide to activate microsoft365.cpm/setup antivirus. Utilization Of microsoft365.cpm/setup Name, logo, trademarks and its images is just for reference and not the slightest bit propose that Go-microsoft365 setup has any business relationship with microsoft365 setup microsoft365.cpm/setup | microsoft365.com/setup

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  61. Microsoft 365 plans for personal and home provides robust Office desktop apps including Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, and OneNote.
    microsoft365.com/setup | microsoft365.com/setup allows you to download and activate the Microsoft Office setup. Go through the canon.com/ijsetup webpage,e, click Set Up and start the Canon ij printer setup process.

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  62. Defend against the unknown threats and proceed for Trend micro download with www.trendmicro.com/activate having Advanced Machine Learning Technology.If you have a Norton product key norton.com/setup and download Norton setup. Go through the 123.hp.com/laserjet provides wired and wireless.

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  63. Max Turner6:49 a. m.

    If you are setting the printer for the first time follow the below instructions given and setup your new HP printer easily. Unbox the 123.hp.com/ojpro9025 printer by removing all the packing materials and recycle the materials.
    solutions.brother.com/windows printers are the all-in-one solution for office use as well as for home use.

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  64. Max Turner6:51 a. m.

    https://ij.start.canon is the solution for easy Canon printer drivers download. http://ij.start.canon allows you to install and set up a Canon inkjet printer and ensure that you receive outstanding printing results.
    canon.com/ijsetup | ij.start.canon | norton.com/setup

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  65. Canon printers, especially all-in-one Inkjet printers, are ideal for home and office use to gain maximum output with high-quality printing documents straightforwardly.
    canon.com/ijsetup | ij.start canon | ij.start.canon | cox webmail login | norton.com/setup

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  66. Camps Intuit is the portal that provides you the QuickBooks business accounting and management software available.
    webroot install with key code | office.com/setup |
    camps.intuit.com |
    camps.intuit.com

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  67. Microsoft setup allows users to download MS Office setup and activate the product Learn more about Microsoft setup on this page. microsoft365.com/setup | micrsoft365.com setup | micrsoft365.com/setupsubscription. Microsoft setup apps are available for Windows, Mac, and smartphones.

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  68. Through www.amazon.com/mytv - how you can connect your mobile phone to Amazon Prime. Through amazon.com/mytv, you can watch your favorite TV shows, series movies. You can watch prime videos anywhere on your device. Users need to create an Amazon account if they don’t have an Amazon account and enter the Amazon my TV activation code to watch Amazon prime videos on your device.

    amazon.com/mytv | www.amazon.com/mytv

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  69. Get Microsoft 365 setup by visiting microsoft365.com/setup. Sign in to Microsoft account, enter the product key and get apps quickly. microsoft365.com/setup is the best way to get all the apps of Office within one subscription. Download & use Microsoft365 setup wizard using microsoft365.com/setup site, follow instructions and install apps.

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  70. Follow cricut.com/setup and it is the online portal that allows you to set up your Cricut machine. A most advanced Cricut machine is best in cutting shapes, text, and photos. It doesn’t only make cuts on card stock or vinyl but adhesive foil, faux leather, balsa wood, and more. So how do you start your circuit machine? You have to download Cricut setup from www.cricut.com/setup, then connect your machine and software to get started.

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  71. Go through the canon.com/ijsetup webpage, click Set Up and start the Canon ij printer setup process.Use ij.start canon to set up your Canon product. Ij.start canon is a platform for getting the canon printer driver.

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  72. McAfee antivirus on any device. Once you visit the retail store like Walmart and Best buy, they issue you a retail card that holds McAfee. mcafe.com/activate , www.hp.com/123 webroot.com/geeksquad webroot.com/secureinstall , macfee.com/activate
    mcafee.com/activate

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  73. Max Turner8:17 a. m.

    If you are setting the printer for the first time follow the below instructions given and setup your new HP printer easily. Unbox the 123.hp.com/ojpro9025 |solutions.brother.com/windows | turbotax login

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  74. Max Turner8:18 a. m.

    The Webroot program is highly rated software to protect your devices & data available for download at webroot.com/safe.
    123.hp.com/setup |
    ij.start.canon

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  75. For a quick and easy canon com/ijsetup on Mac, go to the Apple menu and choose “System Preferences.” After that, you should choose your printer from the list.
    Get More info: canon.com/ijsetup

    If you are having trouble while using canon printer on your device and you have tried every solution to fix the issue, then the last thing you are left with is to uninstall and re-install the Canon Printer driver. So, in this article, we have clearly discussed how to uninstall the printer on a Mac. This will be followed by a discussion on the re-installation process that can be easily done via canon.com/ijsetup
    Get More info: canon.com/ijsetup

    If you are a newbie and do not know how to configure ij.start.canon, this article will walk you through the process of configuring the Canon printer wired and wirelessly on a Windows 10 or Mac device. It is needed to instal the latest drivers in order to set up the printer. It is very crucial, however, that you know the model number in order to find the latest IJ canon setup drivers.
    Get More info: ij.start.cannon

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  76. Get Microsoft 365 setup by visiting microsoft365.com/setup. Sign in to Microsoft account, enter the product key and get apps quickly. Download & use Microsoft365 setup wizard using microsoft365.com/setup site, follow instructions and install apps.Go to www.microsoft365/setup to get all the MS office 365 apps on your devices like Windows, Mac, and smartphones.

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  77. Bitdefender is the tool to provide you best security from multiple cyberattacks. It offers protection for multiple devices under one subscription, which can be managed by a single device.
    Bitdefender Central

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  78. Welcome to the HP site. Download the software SW from hp setup and set up your printer. Then, Get started to installed hp setup and get able to connect the printer to the network through a USB cable or use a wireless HP printer.
    microsoft365.com/setup,
    turbotax login,
    Microsoft365.com/setup

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  79. Max Turner1:39 p. m.

    The Webroot program is highly rated software to protect your devices & data available for download at webroot.com/safe.
    123.hp.com/setup |
    ij.start.canon| ij.start.cannon/ts3322

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  80. To activate Trend micro, make sure you already have an activation code that you’ll probably enter on the www.trendmicro.com/activate .Canon Pixma TS3322 comes with a replaceable 2-Cartridge FINE Hybrid Ink System, including an uplifted version with Wireless Connect in use, a Paper Tray on the rear side that enables reloading plain and photo paper effortlessly fast.
    ij.start.cannon/ts3322
    Microsoft 365 is a cloud-based productivity suite that brings robust desktop office microsoft365.com/setup

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  81. Canon printer drivers and software are essential to install and set up your Canon device. Visit bitdefender and use multiple activities after the Sign in to this page. To access the Cox Webmail Login page, you'll need an internet service and a Device.
    cox webmail login |
    cox mail login |
    central.bitdefender.com |
    http://ij.start.canon

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  82. Cox Email Login is an online login portal that the company provides to its customers enabling them to operate 10 email accounts each capable of 2 GB storage.
    cox webmail login |
    camps.intuit.com | camps.intuit.com |
    microsoft365.com/setup



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  83. Enter Trend micro activation code on trendmicro to download and activate Trend Micro. To activate Trend micro, make sure you already have an activation code that you’ll probably enter on the trendmicro site.
    www.trendmicro.com/activate |
    www.trendmicro/activate |
    trend micro activation

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  84. Bitdefender offers a single tool to control each device within only one subscription package. It is the cybersecurity technology leader that defends online threats if you have created a successful Bitdefender login account.
    bitdefender login

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  85. Canon Pixma TS3322 is a multi-functional printer, which enables you to perform many actions including, print, copy, and scan, all at once. ij.start.cannon/ts3322 , ij.start.canon/ts3322

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  86. To activate Trend micro, make sure you already have an activation code that you’ll probably enter on the trendmicro activate site. www.trendmciro.com/activate | www.trendmicro/activate | trend micro activation

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  87. Several factors matter when you choose the Microsoft 365 subscription. Depending on your requirements on the respective productivity platforms, these products are different in price. microsoft365.com/setup

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  88. Max Turner1:32 p. m.

    The Webroot program is highly rated software to protect your devices & data available for download at
    ij.start.canon| ij.start.cannon/ts3322 | microsoft365.com/setup| Microsoft365.com/setup

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  89. Microsoft 365 or Office on your computer. If you are using any other Microsoft service such as OneDrive, Outlook, Skype, or Xbox Live, it means you already have an account that you can use for any Microsoft activity.
    Microsoft365.com/setup
    Microsoft365.com/setup
    Microsoft365.com/setup
    www.microsoft365/setup

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  90. Canon Pixma TS3322 is a multi-functional printer, which enables you to perform many actions including, print, copy, and scan, all at once.
    ij.start.canon/ts3322
    ij.start.cannon/ts3322
    canon.com/ijsetup

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  91. Use your Microsoft account through microsoft365.com/setup for everything you want to with Microsoft 365. Create an account or use the account of services such as OneDrive, Skype, Outlook, or Xbox Live. Use the site microsoft365.com/setup to download and install Microsoft 365 setup that will allow you to use multiple apps like Word, Excel, OneNote, PowerPoint, or more.

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  92. Canon support site ij.start canon is the best place to find the latest Canon printer drivers and software for each Canon printer product. ij.start.canon is the canon help site to let you download and set up your Canon printer completely.

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  93. Max Turner11:24 a. m.

    Enter Trend micro activation code on www.trendmciro.com/activate | www.trendmicro/activate to download and activate Trend Micro. To activate Trend micro, make sure you already have an activation code that you’ll probably enter on the trendmicro.com/activate site.

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  94. Anónimo11:46 p. m.


    https://persian-computing.ir/There are usually four types of virtual machines used to build VPS: XEN, VMWare, KVM, and OpenVZ.

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  95. Nice post, McAfee is well known security software by an American Global Security Software company. You can easily activate McAfee using product key.

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  96. Defend against the unknown threats and proceed for Trend micro download with www.trendmicro.com/activate having Advanced Machine Learning Technology. Trend micro security is the best way to save your Connected World to all the digital part. Install www.trendmicro/activate from the official site and get the trend micro activation key to complete the process.



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  97. Visit canon.com/ijsetup/mg2522 to download and install the Canon Pixma MG 2522 Setup and enable your printer to execute various functions . canon.com/ijsetup mg2522 . Go through ij.start.canon/ts3122 and download the latest full driver & software package for PIXMA TS3122 ij.start.canon ts3122

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  98. Canon printer drivers and software are essential to install and set up your Canon device. To access the Cox Webmail Login page, you'll need an internet service and a Device.cox webmail login |
    cox mail login

    Canon Inkjet printers are compatible with multiple devices, including Windows, Mac, Smartphones, Tablets, Linux (a few models), and Chromebook.To start the setup process, follow the guidelines shown here.
    canon.com/ijsetup

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  99. Canon printer drivers and software are essential to install and set up your Canon device. Visit bitdefender and use multiple activities after the Sign in to this page.central.bitdefender.com |
    http://ij.start.canon

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  100. Max Turner11:06 a. m.

    The Webroot program is highly rated software to protect your devices & data available for download at
    ij.start.canon| ij.start.cannon/ts3322 | Microsoft365.com/setup
    | microsoft365.com/setup | www.hp.com/go/wirelessprinting

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  101. Max Turner11:10 a. m.

    Visit ij.start.canon | ij.start canon and find out the best way to download Canon printer drivers. Canon printers are ideal for every situation wherever you need a document, paper, or photo print or even if you wish to scan, fax, and do more ijstart.canon will make you learn how to set up a canon printer to get advanced printing features. To complete your Canon ij printer setup with several connectivity options like WiFi, USB, Bluetooth, and others, see and follow below mentioned steps.

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