Del modelo de colonización al modo de dominación actual

La transformación del modelo de colonización al modo de dominación actual

En el modelo de dominación colonial los Estados metropolitanos ejercían su dominio instalando administraciones coloniales en otros territorios, para extraer de ellos ciertos productos primarios, venderles otros elaborados y obtener ganancias mediante el comercio colonial que eran reinvertidas, en parte y sobre todo, en forma de infraestructuras (puertos, ferrocarriles…) tendente a ampliar dicho comercio. A la vez se producía normalmente un flujo de población desde las metrópolis hacia los territorios a colonizar. En este modelo, los residuos y deterioros apenas trascendían el nivel local en el que se generaban.

Actualmente hay países ricos cuya situación privilegiada se sigue apoyando básicamente en el intercambio comercial. Este es sobre todo el caso de Japón, cuyo cuantioso ahorro neto (fruto de su capacidad exportadora, unida a la tradicional frugalidad de su población) ha venido financiando buena parte de la deuda pública y exterior de Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, en otros países con sistemas financieros más capaces, este modelo ha ido evolucionando hacia otro en el que se impone la hegemonía financiera sobre la comercial.

Estados Unidos tiende a apoyarse en empresas transacionales domiciliadas en su territorio que despliegan sucursales para comprar y controlar el mundo operando con el ‘dinero financiero’ que ellas mismas emiten. Ya no hacen falta administraciones coloniales, sino Estados permeables al negocio de las entidades, que faciliten la sucursalización de otros países, como una especie de erupción que invade otros países.
El predominio del poder de las empresas transacionales sobre los Estados se plasma en la existencia de ‘paraísos fiscales’ que les permite escapara a la normativa dictada por estos últimos, a diferencia del resto mayoritario de empresas y ciudadanos ‘normales’.

Pero este modelo quedaría incompleto sino subrayáramos que necesita apoyarse en un potente ‘apalancamiento’ militar.

En este modelo de globalización se amplía considerablemente la capacidad de compra sobre el mundo de los ricos, por ende, el flujo neto de energía y materiales que reciben desde el resto del mundo, que les ayuda a cuidar la calidad de su medio ambiente local.

Este modelo ejemplificado por Estados Unidos, pero también por países como Gran Bretaña, Suiza… o España, ya no es tanto el comercio de mercancías, ni de servicios lo que equilibra las cuentas de los países ricos frente al exterior y nutre su capacidad de compra sobre el planeta, sino la atracción que ejercen sobre el ahorro del mundo. Es el ahorro del mundo que acude a invertirse en títulos emitidos por los Estados y las Corporaciones de los países ricos o en simples depósitos bancarios lo que salva sus cuentas y mantiene la cotización de sus monedas y títulos. Con el agravante de que esta función atractora del ahorro acentúa la escasez de capitales en el resto del mundo, que pasa a ser gestionada interesadamente desde los núcleos de poder mundial mediante la concesión ‘discrecional’ y ‘condicionada’ de ‘ayudas’, ‘inversiones’ o préstamos que acentúan la dependencia de los países que la reciben.

Extraído del libro de José Manuel Naredo ‘Raíces económicas del deterioro ecológico y social. Más allá de los dogmas’. 2006

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