Proceso de dominación

decresita

El ser humano mediante la tecnología  dispone de la energía y los recursos naturales que constituyen su entorno, transformándolos, y obteniendo los bienes necesarios para satisfacer sus necesidades.

Este proceso productivo tendría como finalidad la supervivencia y el ‘disfrute’ de la vida por parte de las personas; pero a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad algunos individuos se han aprovechado de determinadas circunstancias para intentar poseer determinadas ventajas respecto al resto de sus congéneres. Para poder disfrutar de determinadas ventajas (mejor alimentación, menos esfuerzo físico, mejor abrigo…), han tenido la posibilidad de hacerse con la disponibilidad de los recursos y la tecnología y así tener la capacidad de influir en la conducta de sus coetáneos.

Para ello se han utilizado diferentes estrategias:

Por un lado, el uso de la fuerza. Quien poseía mayor disponibilidad energética y capacidad tecnológica, fácilmente podía imponerse por medio de la violencia, y así podía eliminar a sus adversarios o competidores; pero la mejora de  las condiciones de comodidad implicaba que otras personas debían de realizar ciertas tareas imprescindibles (tareas de cuidado, tareas de construcción, tareas de esfuerzo…).

Pero el uso de la violencia tiene sus límites. Se requiere para determinadas tareas un nivel mínimo de confianza.

Se hacía entonces imprescindible legitimar el que unas personas disfrutasen de determinadas ventajas a partir de las tareas que hacían las demás, y así tuvieron que convertirse determinadas diferencias entre las personas en desigualdades (el sexo, el color, la raza, la condición social…), y naturalizar (que aparezcan como normales) esas desigualdades.

Se hizo necesario la aceptación de realidades que incluyeran la naturalización del poder y la formación de jerarquías (a partir de la división de tareas). Hubo tareas más físicas que eran llevadas a cabo por las escalas inferiores, y tareas más intelectuales llevadas a cabo por las escalas superiores. Llegamos así a una estratificación social, que permitía a las clases superiores (reyes, soldados, sacerdotes)  acumular recursos, y a las clases inferiores (esclavos, campesinos, mujeres) que eran despojadas de ellos.

Por otro lado, el control ideológico mediante la creación de un imaginario simbólico nuevo. En los primeros momentos, esta  labor se llevó a cabo mediante la religión, la idea de dios y el miedo al más allá y a la muerte.

Más tarde el uso de un aparato burocrático permite que las élites elaboren discursos para estipular la conducta de los demás, mediante una orientación moral para relacionarse siempre funcional al sistema de estratificación social que se consolida además mediante la forja de un sentido de pertenencia común de sus miembros.

La conjunción de estos dos aparatos ideológicos (religioso y burocrático)  unido al sistema de violencia lleva a cabo un proceso de control social basado en el Estado y cuyos componentes dominantes (soldados, burócratas y sacerdotes) elaboran una realidad legitimadora del sistema social.

De esta manera podríamos esquematizar los procesos de dominación mediante los siguientes diagramas de flujo:

Proceso productivo 

Recursos + Energía + Tecnología (R+E+T) => Transformación => Bienes + Residuos

Proceso político

Poder [disponibilidad de R+E+T] => Bienes => Acumulación => [Derecho - burocracia] => Propiedad

Proceso cultural

Poder [disponibilidad de R+E+T] =>  Creación de imaginario simbólico => Diferencias => [aparato ideológico] =>  Elaboración de desigualdades => Naturalización de las desigualdades => legitimación del poder

Proceso social

Poder [disponibilidad de R+E+T] => División de tareas  =>  Formación de jerarquías => Estratificación social => Control Social => Represión


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